Four by four

four by four

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the novel by George Orwell. For other uses, see disambiguation. Ministries of Nineteen Eighty-Four.

Nations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Newspeak and List of Newspeak words. Nikolai Yezhov walking with Stalin in the top photo from the mid s.

Following his execution in , Yezhov was edited out of the photo by Soviet censors. Adaptations of Nineteen Eighty-Four. Nineteen Eighty-Four in popular media.

Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 8 February The Columbia Encyclopedia 5th ed. It Is What I Think, p. Archived from the original on 18 July Retrieved 4 July The Politics of Literary Reputation: The Making and Claiming of "St.

Introduction to Nineteen Eighty-Four Oxford: Does it matter that George Orwell pinched the plot? Retrieved 20 June Retrieved 13 July Retrieved 25 March LA Review of Books.

Retrieved 20 October Retrieved 2 July In the end their awakening would come. And until that happened, though it might be a thousand years, they would stay alive against all the odds, like birds, passing on from body to body the vitality which the Party did not share and could not kill".

Liverpool University Press, , pp. Foreword to the Centennial Edition to Nineteen eighty-four , pp. Review of "Left Book Club Anthology" review no. The Writings of Dziga Vertov.

University of California Press. Journey into the Whirlwind. Retrieved 2 January Thank you, comrade Stalin! Soviet public culture from revolution to Cold War.

New Jersey Princeton University Presss. The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union. Archived from the original on 11 June Retrieved 19 July Memory, brain, and belief.

Retrieved 14 December Archived from the original on 5 January Retrieved 9 December Meyers , p. Orwell, Sonia; Angus, Ian, eds. The third was to develop a positive imperial policy, and aim at transforming the Empire into a federation of Socialist states, like a looser and freer version of the Union of Soviet Republics.

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Nigel Fountain, The Guardian , June 14, And Other Essays on Literature. Retrieved 28 February Retrieved 20 May Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 26 January Retrieved 25 January Why I love a little dystopia".

Archived from the original on 23 November A Brave New Dystopia: Retrieved 6 December The New York Times. Aubrey, Crispin; Chilton, Paul, eds.

Nineteen Eighty-four in Autonomy, Control, and Communication Repr. The Future As Nightmare: Wells and the Anti-Utopians. Southern Illinois University Press.

Totalitarianism in Our Century. Wintry Conscience of a Generation. Davison, Peter , ed. Erich Fromm Foreword reissue ed.

Afterword by Erich Fromm The Plume edition is an authorised reprint of a hardcover edition published by Harcourt, Inc.

The Plume edition is also published in a Signet edition. The copyright page says this, but the Signet ed. Copyright is explicitly extended to digital and any other means.

Smith, David; Mosher, Michael Orwell for Beginners 1st ed. Writers and Readers Pub. George Orwell and the Origins of University of Michigan Press.

The case for optimism in looking ahead to the s. Adaptations Nineteen Eighty-Four in popular media. England portal Books portal Novels portal Speculative fiction portal Mass surveillance portal.

Retrieved from " https: Views Read View source View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. This page was last edited on 1 February , at There is no time to miss anyone or anything because you are alive.

Not enjoying what is happening right now is living in the past and being only half alive. This leads to self pity, suffering and tears. You are hurting yourself.

There is no way I can take this personally. Communicate with others as clearly as you can to avoid misunderstandings, sadness and drama.

Thank You for using my words, for using my eyes, for using my heart to share your love wherever I go. I love You just the way you are and because I am your creation, I love myself just the way I am.

Help me to keep the Love and the Peace in my Heart and to make that Love a new way of life, that I may live in Love the rest of my life.

Do not expect people to tell you the truth because they also lie to themselves. You have to trust yourself and choose to believe or not to believe what someone says to you.

Your mind will play tricks, but the way you feel in your heart, in your guts, is the truth. True injustice is paying more than once for each mistake.

You will perceive love from everything around you. This is the state of bliss. So 4x2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine torque to only two axle-ends: If this vehicle were a truck with dual rear wheels on two rear axles, so actually having ten wheels, its configuration would still be formulated as 6x4.

Four-wheel drive 4WD refers to vehicles with two axles providing torque to four axle ends. In the North American market the term generally refers to a system that is optimized for off-road driving conditions.

Typical AWD systems work well on all surfaces, but are not intended for more extreme off-road use. Some all-wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles.

An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S , which on a millisecond scale can control the torque distribution electronically between its two motors.

Individual-wheel drive IWD is used to describe electric vehicles with each wheel being driven by its own electric motor.

This system essentially has inherent characteristics that would be generally attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available torque to the wheels.

This can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners. The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the Mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD.

The standard subdivides AWD systems into three categories. Part-Time AWD systems require driver intervention to couple and decouple the secondary axle from the primarily driven axle and these systems do not have a center differential or similar device.

The definition notes that part-time systems may have a low range. Full-Time AWD systems drive both front and rear axles at all times via a center inter-axle differential.

The torque split of that differential may be fixed or variable depending on the type of center differential. This system can be used on any surface at any speed.

The definition does not address inclusion or exclusion of a low range gear. On-Demand AWD systems drive the secondary axle via an active or passive coupling device or "by an independently powered drive system".

The standard notes that in some cases the secondary drive system may also provide the primary vehicle propulsion.

An example is a hybrid AWD vehicle where the primary axle is driven by an internal combustion engine and secondary axle is driven by an electric motor.

When the internal combustion engine is shut off the secondary, electrically driven axle is the only driven axle. On-demand systems function primarily with only one powered axle until torque is required by the second axle.

At that point either a passive or active coupling sends torque to the secondary axle. In addition to the above primary classifications the J standard notes secondary classifications resulting in a total of eight system designations:.

Two wheels fixed to the same axle turn at the same speed as a vehicle goes around curves. This either forces one to slip, if possible, to balance the apparent distance covered, or creates uncomfortable and mechanically stressful wheel hop.

To prevent this the wheels are allowed to turn at different speeds using a mechanical or hydraulic differential. This allows one driveshaft to independently drive two output shafts, axles that go from the differential to the wheel, at different speeds.

The differential does this by distributing angular force in the form of torque evenly, while distributing angular velocity turning speed such that the average for the two output shafts is equal to that of the differential ring gear.

When powered each axle requires a differential to distribute power between the left and right sides. The described system handles extremely well, as it is able to accommodate various forces of movement and distribute power evenly and smoothly, making slippage unlikely.

Once it does slip, however, recovery is difficult. If the left front wheel of a 4WD vehicle slips on an icy patch of road, for instance, the slipping wheel will spin faster than the other wheels due to the lower traction at that wheel.

Since a differential applies equal torque to each half-shaft, power is reduced at the other wheels, even if they have good traction. This problem can happen in both 2WD and 4WD vehicles, whenever a driven wheel is placed on a surface with little traction or raised off the ground.

The simplistic design works acceptably well for 2WD vehicles. It is much less acceptable for 4WD vehicles, because 4WD vehicles have twice as many wheels with which to lose traction, increasing the likelihood that it may happen.

However, since torque is divided amongst four wheels rather than two, each wheel receives approximately half the torque of a 2WD vehicle, reducing the potential for wheel slip.

Many differentials have no way of limiting the amount of engine power that gets sent to its attached output shafts. As a result, if a tire loses traction on acceleration, either because of a low-traction situation e.

In very low traction situations, this can prevent the vehicle from moving at all. This is generally used for the center differential, which distributes power between the front and the rear axles.

While a drivetrain that turns all wheels equally would normally fight the driver and cause handling problems, this is not a concern when wheels are slipping.

The two most common factory-installed locking differentials use either a computer-controlled multi-plate clutch or viscous coupling unit to join the shafts, while other differentials more commonly used on off-road vehicles generally use manually operated locking devices.

In the viscous coupling differentials the shear stress of high shaft speed differences causes a dilatant fluid in the differential to become solid, linking the two shafts.

This design suffers from fluid degradation with age and from exponential locking behavior. A third approach to limiting slippage is taken by a Torsen differential.

A Torsen differential allows the output shafts to receive different amounts of torque. This design does not provide for traction when one wheel is spinning freely, where there is no torque, but provides excellent handling in less extreme situations.

A fairly recent innovation in automobiles is electronic traction control. This forced slowing emulates the function of a limited-slip differential, and, by using the brakes more aggressively to ensure wheels are being driven at the same speed, can also emulate a locking differential.

It should be noted that this technique normally requires wheel sensors to detect when a wheel is slipping, and only activates when wheel slip is detected.

Therefore, there is typically no mechanism to actively prevent wheel slip i. If preventing all-wheel slip is a requirement, this is a limiting design.

The different modes are as follows:. The drive to the other axle is disconnected. The operating torque split ratio is 0: Four Wheel Drive 4WD Mode - Here, depending on the nature of torque transfer to the axles, three sub-modes below can be defined.

In addition to these basic modes there could be implementations that combine these modes. The system could have a clutch across the center differential, for example, capable of modulating the front axle torque from a Full-time mode with the In , before the establishment of a modern automotive industry in Britain, English engineer Bramah Joseph Diplock patented a four-wheel-drive system for a steam-powered traction engine , [14] including four-wheel steering and three differentials , which was subsequently built.

Ferdinand Porsche designed and built a four-wheel-driven electric vehicle for the k. The vehicle was a series hybrid car, that used an electric hub motor at each wheel, powered by batteries, which were in turn charged by a gasoline-engine generator.

Commissioned for the Paris to Madrid race of , it was presented that year by brothers Jacobus and Hendrik-Jan Spijker of Amsterdam. Later used as a hill-climb racer, it is now an exhibit in the Louwman Museum the former Nationaal Automobiel Museum in the Hague , the Netherlands.

Designs for four-wheel drive in America came from the Twyford Company of Brookville, Pennsylvania in , six were made there around ; one still exists and is displayed annually.

The first four-wheel drive vehicles to go into mass-production were built by what became the American Four Wheel Drive Auto Company FWD of Wisconsin , founded in [21] not to be confused with the term "FWD" as an acronym for front-wheel drive.

Army in World War I. Only about 20 percent of the trucks built were four-wheel-drives, but the 4x4s were more often on the front lines.

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